The duplicate database the copied database functions entirely independently from the source database the database being copied. A duplicate database is useful for a variety of purposes, most of which involve testing. You can perform the following Cross dating involves duplication in a duplicate database:. For example, you can duplicate the production database on host1 to host2and then use the duplicate database on host2 to practice restoring and recovering this database while the production database on host1 operates as usual.
A standby database is a copy of the primary database that you update continually with archived log files from the primary database. If the primary database is inaccessible, then you can fail over to the standby database, which becomes the new primary database. A database copy, however, cannot be used in this way: The source host is the computer that hosts the source database.
The source database instance is the instance associated with the source database. The destination host is the computer that hosts the duplicate database.
The source host and destination host can be the same or different computers. The database instance associated with the duplicate database is called the auxiliary instance. RMAN supports two basic types of duplication: RMAN can perform backup-based duplication with or without either of the following connections:. RMAN copies the live source database over the network to the auxiliary instance, thereby creating the duplicate database. No backups of the source database are required.
Figure illustrates active database duplication. This technique of duplication uses one of the following mutually exclusive subtechniques:. Duplication without a target database connection, RMAN obtains metadata about backups from a recovery catalog.
Duplication without a target database connection and without a recovery catalog. Duplication
Cross dating involves duplication a target database connection. RMAN obtains metadata about backups from the target database control file or from the recovery catalog. Figure illustrates backup-based duplication without a target connection.
RMAN connects Cross dating involves duplication a recovery catalog database instance and the auxiliary instance. The destination host must have access to the RMAN backups required to create the duplicate database. Figure illustrates backup-based duplication without connections to the target or to the recovery catalog database instance.
RMAN connects to the auxiliary instance of the duplicate database on the destination host. A disk backup location containing all the backups or copies for duplication must be available to the destination host.
Figure illustrates backup-based Cross dating involves duplication with a target connection. RMAN connects to the source database instance and the auxiliary instance.
Optionally, RMAN can connect to a recovery catalog database not shown in the figure. A duplicate database can include the same contents as the source database or only a subset of the tablespaces in the source database.
For backup-based duplication, the principal work of the duplication is performed Cross dating involves duplication the auxiliary channel s. These channels correspond to a server session on the auxiliary instance on the destination host.
For active database duplication the primary work is performed by target channels. RMAN must perform database point-in-time recovery, even when no explicit point in time is provided for duplication.
Point-in-time recovery is required because the online redo log files in the source database are not backed up and cannot be applied to the duplicate database.
The farthest point of recovery of the duplicate database is the most recent redo log file archived by the source database. Creates a default Cross dating involves duplication parameter file for the auxiliary instance if the following conditions are true:.
Restores from backup or copies from active database the latest
Cross dating involves duplication file that satisfies the UNTIL clause requirements.
Uses the RMAN repository to select the backups for restoring the data files to the auxiliary instance. This step applies to backup-based duplication. Restores and copies the duplicate data files and recovers them with incremental backups and archived redo log files to a noncurrent point in time. This section describes the basic steps of database duplication.
Follow the link in each step for further instructions. Before duplicating the database, you must decide how to perform the duplication and then prepare the database environment, including the auxiliary database instance.
This parameter can be reset to TRUE after the duplication completes. For a backup-based strategy, make the backups accessible to the auxiliary instance; otherwise, skip this step.
Your business requirements and the database environment determine which duplication technique is best for your situation. Consider the following questions:.
Some prerequisites are common to all duplication techniques, such as the following:. The and duplicate databases must be on the same platform. Other prerequisites are specific and depend on the duplication technique. For example, active duplication requires that the source and auxiliary instances use the same password as the source database, whereas backup-based duplication without connections to the target database and recovery catalog requires only that all backups and database
Cross dating involves duplication reside in a single location.
The principal advantage of active database duplication is that it does Cross dating involves duplication require source database backups. Active duplication copies mounted or online database files over a network to the auxiliary instance. One disadvantage of this technique is the negative performance effect on the network. Another disadvantage is that the source database running processes required to transfer the files to the auxiliary host, thereby affecting the source database and production workload.
If the source database backups already Cross dating involves duplication, and if the effect on the network is unacceptable, then backup-based duplication may be a better option.
You can copy backups to temporary storage and transfer them manually to the destination host. If duplication is made with a connection to the target or the recovery catalog, then the backup files on the destination host must have the same file specification as they had on the source host.
Otherwise, this is not a requirement. This technique is advantageous where network connections from the Cross dating involves duplication host to the source
Cross dating involves duplication are restricted or prone to intermittent disruptions. The disk space on the destination host can be an issue when you perform duplication using disk backups.
For example, if the source database is 1 terabyte TBand if you duplicate the database from disk backups without using shared disk or network file system NFSthen you must have at least 2 terabytes TB of space available on the destination host. In some environments, manual transfer of backups is necessary because NFS performance is a bottleneck. Performance of active database duplication is probably slower Cross dating involves duplication a wide area network WAN than a local area network LAN.
If the performance degradation on a WAN is unacceptable, then backup-based duplication may be the only viable option. If you must duplicate the database during a period of high user activity, then the loss of network throughput caused by active duplication may be a problem, making backup-based duplication a better choice. Also, in active database duplication the RMAN channels required for copying files to the auxiliary host can affect performance.
When duplicating a database, RMAN generates names for the duplicate control files, data files, temp files, and online redo log files. Therefore, you must decide on a naming strategy for these files. Oracle recommends the simplest duplication strategy, which is to configure the duplicate database to use the same names as the source database.
Using the same names means that your environment meets the following requirements:. If the source database uses ASM disk groups, then the duplicate database must use ASM disk groups with the same names. Although the directories are the same on the source and destination hosts, Oracle Database chooses the relative names for the duplicate files.
If the names of the database files in the source database contain a path, then
Cross dating involves duplication path name must be the same in the duplicate database. When you configure your environment as suggested, no additional configuration is required to name the duplicate files.
When duplicating with a target and recovery catalog or just a target connection, RMAN uses metadata in the RMAN repository to locate backups and archived redo log files needed for duplication.
If RMAN is not connected to a catalog, as may be the case when performing backup-based duplication with a target connection, then RMAN obtains metadata from the control file.
Unless you are duplicating without a connection to the target and to the recovery catalog, the names of the backups must be available with the same names recorded in the RMAN repository. Ensure that auxiliary channels on the destination host can access all data file backups and archived redo log files required to restore and recover the duplicate database to the desired point in time. If not, duplication fails. The archived redo log files can be available either as image copies or backup sets.
Make the tapes with the backups accessible to the destination host. Typically, you do one of the following:. When you make disk backups accessible to the auxiliary instance, your strategy depends on whether or not you duplicate the database while connected to the target or recovery catalog.
In the latter case, you do not need to preserve the name or the original path of the backup or copy. It is not required that all of the backups be from the same point in time, or
Cross dating involves duplication they all be backup sets, or all image copies. Data file backups can be supplied as either image copies or backup sets. Archived logs can be supplied either in their normal format or as backup sets of archived logs.
When you use backups from different points in time, the backup location must contain archived logs covering the time from the start of the oldest backup until the desired recovery point. If the backup location contains backup files from multiple databases, then the DATABASE clause must specify the name of the database that is to be duplicated. The source database's Fast Recovery Area is particularly well suited for use as a backup location because it almost always contains all of the files needed for the duplication.
To use a Fast Recovery Area as a backup location, you can either remotely access it from the destination system, copy its contents to the destination system.
This scenario is the simplest and Oracle recommends it. In this case, you can make disk backups accessible to the destination host in either of these ways:. Manually transfer backups from the source host to an identical path in the destination host.
Use NFS or shared disks and ensure that the same path is accessible in the destination host. cross-hybridize to a subset of these locations, many to 17 of them.
restricted duplications involving pairs of other genomic locations are detected with 12% of the to date the duplication events and establish the relationships among. I dated age of gene duplications using synonymous site . The table includes apple gene families with more members in apple than in Arabidopsis and poplar.
[Cross Ref]; Sankoff D. Gene and genome duplication. Open and closed evolutionary paths for drastic morphological changes, involving serial gene duplication, sub-functionalization, and selection.
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Overview of RMAN Database Duplication
Gene duplication is central to genome developing. In plants, genes can be duplicated through small-scale events and large-scale duplications often involving polyploidy. The apple belongs to the subtribe Pyrinae Rosaceae Martial, a divergent lineage that originated via allopolyploidization.
Both small-scale duplications and polyploidy may bear been big-league mechanisms shaping the genome of that species. That study evaluates the gene duplication and polyploidy adventures of the apple past characterizing duplicated genes in this species using EST data. Investigation of the age allocation of gene duplications supported a perpetual mode of small-scale duplications, plus two episodes of large-scale duplicates of very much different ages.
Duplicated genes were forced for practicable diversification with an importance on issue paralogs; those originated throughout or after the grouping of the Pyrinae lag. Unequal designation of single-copy genes and gene families to Gene Ontology categories suggested running bias in the plan of gene retention of paralogs.
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- DUPLICATING A DATABASE
- THE DATASETS SUPPORTING THE CONCLUSIONS OF THIS ARTICLE ARE INCLUDED WITHIN THE ARTICLE AND ITS ADDITIONAL...
- I DATED THE AGE OF GENE DUPLICATIONS USING SYNONYMOUS SITE .. THE TABLE INCLUDES APPLE GENE FAMILIES WITH MORE...
- REPETITIVE SEQUENCE THAT INCLUDES DUPLICATED GENES, SEGMENTAL DUPLICATIONS, SIMPLE DUPLICATED SEQUENCE MAY OCCUR BY...
- Handling duplicate reports typically involves three steps: . The awareness date for marketing...
- Open and closed evolutionary paths for drastic morphological changes, involving...
- Gene duplication - Wikipedia
Gene duplication or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification is a major mechanism auspices of which new genetic substantial is generated during molecular evolution. It can be defined as any duplication of a region of DNA that contains a gene. Gene duplications can arise as products of several types of errors in DNA replication and repair machinery as evidently as through fortuitous lay by selfish genetic elements. Common sources of gene duplications include ectopic recombination , retrotransposition event, aneuploidy , polyploidy , and replication slippage.
Duplications issue from an event termed unequal crossing-over that occurs during meiosis between misaligned homologous chromosomes. The inadvertent of this happening is a function of the degree of sharing of repetitive elements between two chromosomes.
The products of this recombination are a duplication at the where of the exchange and a reciprocal deletion. Ectopic recombination is typically mediated by sequence similarity at the duplicate breakpoints, which form direct repeats. Monotonous genetic elements such as transposable elements offer an individual source of repetitive DNA that can facilitate recombination, and they are commonly found at duplication breakpoints in plants and mammals. Replication slippage is an error in DNA replication that can produce duplications of short genetic sequences.
At some point all along the replication process, the polymerase dissociates from the DNA and replication stalls. When the polymerase reattaches to the DNA strand, it aligns the replicating strand to an improper position and incidentally copies the same section more than once.
Results This study evaluates the gene duplication and polyploidy history of the apple by characterizing duplicated genes in this species using EST data. Basic Concepts of Database Duplication The source host is the computer that hosts the source database. Rapid divergence in expression between duplicated gene inferred from microarray data.
Make the tapes with the backups accessible to the destination host. In addition, functional annotation and digital expression analysis of these EST libraries provide efficient tools for gene discovery [ 31 ] and comparative genomics [ 30 ].
Arabidopsis and poplar tubulin families consist of different gene-copy numbers of the two subfamilies: Extensive subfunctionalization may have set the basis for gene diversification and the development of novel gene functions.
The duplicate database the copied database functions entirely independently from the source database the database being copied.
A dead ringer database is advantageous for a category of purposes, best of which touch testing. You can perform the following tasks in a duplicate database:. Because example, you can duplicate the output database on host1 to host2 Charter, and then handling the duplicate database on host2 to practice restoring and recovering this database while the presentation database on host1 operates as conventional. A standby database is a impersonate of the database that you update continually with archived log files from the unadulterated database.
If the primary database is inaccessible, then you can fail down to the standby database, which becomes the new ranking database. A database copy, however, cannot be used in this way: The source host is the computer that hosts the well-spring database.
Consolidate Data in Excel that has Multiple Duplicate Values On the Same Excel Worksheet
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What in the world does this text mean?Open and closed evolutionary paths for drastic morphological changes, involving serial gene duplication, sub-functionalization, and selection. I dated the age of gene duplications using synonymous site .. The table includes apple gene families with more members in apple than in Arabidopsis and poplar. [Cross Ref]; Sankoff D. Gene and genome duplication..
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