Child sexual abusealso called child molestationis a form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation.
Child sexual abuse can occur in a variety of settings, including home, school,
Percentile meaning statistics of sexual molestation work in places where child labor is common. Child marriage is one of the main forms of child sexual abuse; UNICEF has stated that child marriage "represents perhaps the most prevalent form of sexual abuse and exploitation of girls". The global prevalence of child sexual abuse has been estimated at The word pedophile is commonly applied indiscriminately to anyone who sexually abuses a child,  but child sexual offenders are not pedophiles unless they have a strong sexual interest in prepubescent children.
Child sexual abuse can result in both short-term and long-term harm, including psychopathology in later life. A well-documented, long-term negative effect is repeated or additional victimization in adolescence and adulthood.
A specific characteristic pattern of symptoms has
Percentile meaning statistics of sexual molestation been identified,  and there are several hypotheses about the causality of these associations. Child abuseincluding sexual abuse, especially chronic abuse starting at early ages, has been found to be related to the development of high Percentile meaning statistics of sexual molestation of dissociative symptoms, which includes amnesia for abuse memories.
Because child sexual abuse often occurs alongside other possibly confounding variables, such as poor family environment and physical abuse,  some scholars argue it is important to control for those variables in studies which measure the effects of sexual abuse.
Their examination of a small sample of CSA-discordant twins also supported a causal link between child sexual abuse and adult psychopathology; the CSA-exposed subjects had a consistently higher risk for psychopathologic disorders than their CSA non-exposed twins. A meta-analysis by Bruce Rind et al. Depending on the age and size of the child, and the degree of force used, child sexual abuse may cause internal lacerations and bleeding.
In severe cases, damage to internal organs may occur, which, in some cases, may cause death. Child sexual abuse may cause infections and sexually transmitted diseases.
Vaginitis has also been reported.
Research has shown that traumatic stress, including stress caused by sexual abuse, causes notable changes in brain functioning and development. Some studies indicate that sexual or physical abuse in children can lead to the overexcitation of an undeveloped limbic system.
Male and female victims were similarly affected. Because the abused subjects' verbal SAT scores were high, they hypothesized that the low math SAT scores could "stem from a defect in hemispheric integration. Incest between a child or adolescent and a related adult is known as child incestuous abuse and has been identified as the most widespread form of child sexual abuse with a huge capacity to damage the young person.
Prevalence of parental child sexual abuse is difficult to assess due to secrecy and privacy; some estimates state that 20 million Americans have been victimized by parental incest as children.
Commercial sexual exploitation of children CSEC is defined by the Declaration of the First World Congress against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, held in Stockholm inas "sexual abuse by an adult accompanied by remuneration in cash or in kind to the child or third person s. CSEC is particularly a problem in developing countries of Asia. Children who received supportive responses following disclosure had less traumatic symptoms and were abused for a shorter period of time than children who did not receive support.
The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry provides guidelines for what to say to the victim and what
Percentile meaning statistics of sexual molestation do following the disclosure. Therefore, the parental caregiver teaches the child to mask his or her issues. In many jurisdictions, abuse that is suspected, not necessarily proven, requires reporting to child protection agencies, such as the Child Protection Services in the United States.
A private environment away from suspected abusers is desired for interviewing and examining. Leading statements that can distort the story are avoided. As disclosing abuse can be distressing and sometimes even shameful, reassuring the child that he or she has done the right thing by telling and that they are not bad and that the abuse was not their Percentile meaning statistics of sexual molestation helps in disclosing more information.
Anatomically correct dolls are sometimes used to help explain what happened, although some researchers consider the dolls too explicit and overstimulating, which might contribute to non-abused children behaving with the dolls in one or more ways that suggest they were sexually abused. The initial approach to treating a person who has
Percentile meaning statistics of sexual molestation a victim of sexual abuse is dependent upon several important factors:.
The goal of treatment is not only to treat current mental health issues, and trauma related symptoms, but also to prevent future ones. Children often present for treatment in one of several circumstances, including criminal investigations, custody battles, problematic behaviors, and referrals from child welfare agencies. The three major modalities for therapy with children and adolescents are family therapygroup therapyand individual therapy.
Which course is used depends Percentile meaning statistics of sexual molestation a variety of factors that must be assessed on a case-by-case basis.
For instance, treatment of young children generally requires strong parental involvement and can benefit from family therapy. Adolescents tend to be more independent; they can benefit from individual or group therapy.
Summit, a medical doctor, defined the different stages the victims of child sexual abuse go through, called child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome. He suggested that children who are victims of sexual abuse display a range of symptoms that include secrecy, helplessness, entrapment, accommodation, delayed and conflicted disclosure and recantation. Adults who have been sexually abused as children often present for treatment with a secondary mental health issue, which can include substance abuse, eating disorderspersonality disordersdepression, and conflict in romantic or interpersonal relationships.
Generally, the approach is to focus on the present problem, rather than the abuse itself. For instance, a person with a history of sexual abuse Percentile meaning statistics of sexual molestation from severe depression would be treated for depression.
However, there is often an emphasis on cognitive restructuring to the deep-seated nature of the trauma.
Some newer techniques such as eye movement desensitization and reprocessing EMDR have been shown to be effective. Sexual abuse is associated with many sub-clinical behavioral issues as well, including re-victimization in the teenage years, a bipolar-like switching between sexual compulsion and shut-down, and distorted thinking on the subject of sexual abuse for instance, that it is common and happens to everyone.
When first presenting for treatment, the patient can be fully aware of their abuse as an event, but their appraisal of it is often distorted, such as believing that the was unremarkable a form of isolation. Frequently, victims do not make the connection between their abuse and
Percentile meaning statistics of sexual molestation present pathology.
Child sexual abuse prevention programmes were developed in the United States of America during the s and originally delivered to children. Programmes delivered to parents were developed in the s and took the form of one-off meetings, two to three hours long.
Offenders are more likely to be relatives or acquaintances of their victim than strangers. More offenders are male than female, though the percentage varies between studies. Early research in the s and s began to classify offenders based on their motivations and traits.
Groth and Birnbaum categorized child sexual offenders into two groups, "fixated" and "regressed".
This study also showed that adult sexual orientation was not related to the sex of the victim targeted, e. Later work Holmes and Holmes, expanded on the types of offenders and their psychological profiles.
They are divided as follows: Causal factors of child sex offenders are not known conclusively. The US Government Accountability Office concluded, "the existence of a cycle of sexual abuse not established. Even the majority of studies found that most adult sex offenders said they had not been sexually abused during childhood, but studies varied in terms of their estimates of the percentage of such offenders who had been abused, from 0 to 79 percent.
More recent prospective longitudinal research—studying children with documented cases of sexual abuse over time to determine what percentage become adult offenders—has demonstrated that the cycle of violence theory is not an adequate explanation for why people molest children. Offenders may use cognitive distortions to facilitate their offenses, such as minimization of the abuse, victim blamingand excuses. Pedophilia is a condition in which an adult or older adolescent is primarily or exclusively attracted to prepubescent children, whether the attraction is acted upon or not.
In law enforcementthe term pedophile is sometimes used to describe those accused or convicted of child sexual abuse under sociolegal definitions of child including both prepubescent children and adolescents younger than the local age of consent ;  however, not all child sexual offenders are pedophiles and not all pedophiles engage in sexual abuse of children. The term pedocriminality De: Recidivism rates for sex offenders are lower than for the general criminal population.
When a prepubescent child is sexually abused by one or more other children or adolescent youths, and no adult is directly involved, it is defined as child-on-child abuse. The definition includes any sexual activity between children that
Percentile meaning statistics of sexual molestation without consentwithout equality, or due to coercion whether the offender uses physical force, threats, trickery or emotional manipulation to compel cooperation.
When sexual abuse is perpetrated by one sibling upon another, it is known as " intersibling abuse ", a form of incest. Unlike research on adult offenders, a strong causal relationship has
Percentile meaning statistics of sexual molestation established between child and adolescent offenders these offenders' own prior victimization, by either adults or other children.
Although there is no known cure for pedophilia,  there are a number of treatments for pedophiles and child sexual abusers. Some of the treatments focus on attempting to change the sexual preference of pedophiles, while others focus on keeping pedophiles from committing child sexual abuse, or on keeping child sexual abusers from committing child sexual abuse again.
Cognitive behavioral therapy CBTfor example, aims to reduce attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that may increase the likelihood of sexual offenses against children. Its content varies widely between therapists, but a typical program might involve training in self-control, social competence and empathy, and use cognitive restructuring to change views on sex with children.
The most common form of this therapy is relapse preventionwhere the patient is taught to identify and respond to potentially risky situations based on principles used for treating addictions. The evidence for cognitive behavioral therapy is mixed. Based on self-disclosure dataa meta-analysis of studies estimated a global prevalence of Percentile meaning statistics of sexual molestation rates of self-disclosed abuse for specific continents were as follows: A meta-analysis of 65 studies from 22 countries found a global prevalence of In that analysis, Africa had the highest prevalence rate of child sexual abuse A ten-country school-based study in southern Africa in found Rates among year-olds were Comparing the same schools in eight countries between andage-standardised on the Botswana male sample, there was no significant decrease between and among females in any country and inconsistent changes among males.
The prevalence of child sexual abuse in Africa is compounded by the virgin cleansing myth that sexual intercourse with a virgin will cure a man of HIV or AIDS. The myth is prevalent in South AfricaZimbabwe Zambia and Nigeria and is being blamed for the high rate Percentile meaning statistics of sexual molestation sexual abuse against young children.
Child rape is on the rise [ when?
Child welfare groups believe that the number of unreported incidents could be up to 10 times that number. The largest increase in attacks was against children under seven. The virgin cleansing myth is especially common in South Africawhich has the highest number of HIV-positive citizens in the world. Eastern Cape social worker Edith Kriel notes that "child abusers are often relatives of their victims — even their fathers and providers.
A number of high-profile baby Percentile meaning statistics of sexual molestation appeared since including the fact that they required extensive reconstructive surgery to rebuild urinary, genital, abdominal, or tracheal systems.
Ina 9-month-old was raped and likely lost consciousness as the pain was too much to bear. One has been charged. The infant has required extensive reconstructive surgery. The 8-month-old infant's injuries were so extensive, increased attention on prosecution has occurred. In Bangladeshchild prostitutes are known to take the drug Oradexonan over-the-counter steroidusually used by farmers to fatten cattle, to make child prostitutes look larger and older. According to social activists, the steroid can cause diabeteshigh blood pressure and is highly addictive.
Nineteen percent of the world's children live in India,   which constitutes 42 percent of India's total population. Although the presence and impact of alcohol in sexual assault encounters among Percentile meaning statistics of sexual molestation explanation for why such conditions increase the likelihood of with most adolescent girls (83%–92%) and a large percentage of adolescent boys.
Statistic showing that women who are not in college are at the highest of all students experience rape or sexual assault through physical force, ("Victim services agency” is defined in this study as a “public or privately funded. Often a traumatic experience for children and teens, child sexual abuse is a criminal offense punishable FACT: Most people think of adult rape as a crime of great proportion and significance, and are unaware.
below the 25th percentile
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The prevalence of child fleshly abuse is difficult to determine owing to it is often not reported; experts agree that the frequency is distance off greater than what is reported to authorities.
CSA is more not uniformly defined, so statistics may vary. Just out studies in , Hinder, and be dressed all concluded similar results page 8. Children who had an experience of rape or attempted in their adolescent years were A issue who is the fool of prolonged sexual misemploy usually develops low self-regard, a instinct of worthlessness and an abnormal or distorted on account of of shafting.
The babe may grace withdrawn and mistrustful of adults, and can be proper suicidal bellhop 1. Children who do not agree to with both parents as well as children living in homes marked alongside parental discordance, divorce, or domestic brutality, have a higher hazard of being sexually misused page Membership Colleague Login Transform into a Colleague.
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Do most women really like having their clothes ripped?Although the presence and impact of alcohol in sexual assault encounters among Another explanation for why such conditions increase the likelihood of with most adolescent girls (83%–92%) and a large percentage of adolescent boys. CSA is also not uniformly defined, so statistics may vary. Statistics below represent some of the research done on child sexual abuse. The U.S. Department of..
Sexual Abuse Definition and Statistics
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